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工業廠房建筑設計要點分析

   單層廠房 

  廠房內一般按水平方向布置生產線。這種廠房結構簡單,可以采用大跨度球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、大進深;便于使用重型起重運輸設備,地面上可安裝重型設備;可以利用天窗采光、通風。單層廠房的適應性強球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,既可用于生產重型產品,又可用于生產輕型產品;既可建成大跨度、大面積的,也可建小跨度、小面積的。但是占地大球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,相應地增加了室外道路球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、管線和運輸線路的長度。 
  可采用單跨或多跨(聯跨)平面,各跨多平行布置,也可有垂直跨球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。廠房多呈矩形,一些熱加工車間廠房常采用п形、形。生活用房和輔助用房多沿柱邊布置或利用吊車的死角處,也可集中建在廠房附近或貼建于廠房四周,但不宜過多球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以免妨礙廠房采光和通風。
  單層廠房柱距多用6米,間或采用9球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、12、18米等,跨度也采用以3米為基本參數,以便于構件的定型化。多跨廠房各跨的高度不同球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,應適當調整球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以簡化構件和構造處理,改善采光、通風效果球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。 
  單層廠房結構通常用鋼筋混凝土構架體系球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,特殊高大或有振動的廠房可用鋼結構體系球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。在不需要重型吊車或大型懸掛運輸設備時,還可采用薄殼、網架球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、懸索(見懸掛結構建筑)等大型空間結構,以擴大柱網,增加靈活性。 
    The production line is generally arranged horizontally in the plant. This kind of workshop has simple structure, can adopt large span and deep depth; it is easy to use heavy lifting and transportation equipment, and can install heavy equipment on the ground; it can use skylight for lighting and ventilation. The single-layer workshop has strong adaptability, which can be used to produce heavy products and light products; it can be built into large-span, large area, small span and small area. However, due to the large land occupation, the length of outdoor roads, pipelines and transportation lines has been increased accordingly.
    Most of the workshops are rectangular, and some of the hot working workshop workshops usually adopt the shape of п. The living room and auxiliary room are mostly arranged along the edge of the column or at the dead corner of the crane. They can also be built in the vicinity of the plant or around the plant. However, they should not be too much, so as not to hinder the lighting and ventilation of the plant.. The height of each span of multi span plant is different, so it should be adjusted appropriately to simplify the treatment of components and structures, and improve the lighting and ventilation effect.
     When there is no need for heavy crane or large suspension transportation equipment, large space structures such as thin shell, grid, suspension cable (see suspension structure building) can also be used to expand the column network and increase flexibility.
    多層廠房  
  多層廠房是在單層廠房基礎上發展起來的。這類廠房有利于安排豎向生產流程,管線集中,管理方便球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,占地面積小球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。如果安排重型的和振動較大的生產車間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,則結構設計比較復雜。 
  多層廠房平面有多種形式,最常見的是:內廊式不等跨布置,中間跨作通道球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载;等跨布置球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,適用于大面積靈活布置的生產車間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。以自然采光為主的多層廠房,寬度一般為15~24米,過寬則中間地帶采光不足。交通樞紐、管道井常布置在中心部位,空調機房則可設在廠房的一側或底層球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,利用技術夾層、豎井通至各層球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。
  多層廠房層高一般為4~5米,有時為取得足夠的自然光,可達6米,要考慮設備和懸掛運輸機具的高度。多層廠房的底層球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,多布置對外運輸頻繁的原料粗加工、設備較大、用水較多的車間或原料和成品庫球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。多層廠房的頂層便于加大跨度和開設天窗,宜布置大面積加工裝配車間或精密加工車間。其他各層根據生產線作出安排。 
  多層廠房各層間主要依靠貨梯連系球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,樓梯宜靠外墻布置球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。有時為簡化結構,也可將交通運輸樞紐設在與廠房毗鄰的連接體內球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。在用斗式提升機、滑道球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、輸液通道球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、風動管道等重力運輸設備的生產車間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,如面粉廠球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,其工段要嚴格按照工藝流程布置球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。生活輔助用房常布置在各層端部,以接近所服務的工段球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,也可將生活輔助用房貼建在主廠房外,利用樓梯錯層連接。 
  多層廠房多采用鋼筋混凝土框架結構體系,或預制、或現澆球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,或二者相結合;也廣泛采用無梁樓蓋體系球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,如升板等類型球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。樓面荷載應考慮工藝變更時的適應性,也要考慮為設備安裝和大修留起吊孔。
    Multi story factory building is developed on the basis of single story factory building. This kind of workshop is conducive to the arrangement of vertical production process, centralized pipelines, convenient management and small floor area. If heavy and vibration workshop is arranged, the structure design is more complex.
    The plane of multi-storey workshop has many forms, the most common one is: the inner gallery is arranged with unequal span, and the middle span is used as the passage; the equal span layout is suitable for the production workshop with large area and flexible layout. The width of multi-storey factory buildings with natural lighting as the main part is generally 15-24m. If they are too wide, the lighting in the middle zone is insufficient. Transportation hub and pipeline well are usually arranged in the center, while air conditioning room can be set on one side or bottom floor of the plant, and technical interlayer and shaft are used to connect to each floor.
     At the bottom of the multi-storey factory building, more workshops or raw materials and finished products warehouses with frequent external transportation, large equipment and more water are arranged. The top floor of the multi-storey workshop is convenient for increasing the span and opening the skylight, and large-area processing and assembly workshop or precision processing workshop should be arranged. Other layers shall be arranged according to the production line.
     Sometimes, in order to simplify the structure, the transportation hub can also be located in the connection body adjacent to the plant. In the production workshop with bucket elevator, slideway, infusion channel, pneumatic pipeline and other gravity transportation equipment, such as flour mill, the working section shall be arranged in strict accordance with the process flow. The auxiliary living room is usually arranged at the end of each floor to approach the section served. The auxiliary living room can also be pasted outside the main workshop and connected by stairs.
    The multi-storey factory buildings mostly adopt reinforced concrete frame structure system, or prefabricated, or cast-in-place, or a combination of the two; also widely use the beamless floor system, such as lifting slab and other types. The adaptability of process change shall be considered for floor load, and lifting holes shall be reserved for equipment installation and overhaul.
    熱加工廠房
  這種廠房內在生產過程中散發大量余熱或煙塵球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,廠房設計應著重解決散熱排煙問題球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,一般以采用自然通風散熱為主,機械排熱為輔。設計中還要綜合考慮車間內外對環境的污染和影響球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。 
  熱加工廠房多為窄長的單跨廠房,以利自然通風,面積大的也可用聯跨。廠房內的熱源布置要考慮對相鄰工段的影響,如果常年風壓不大,熱源最好正對排風口(如天窗等),以減少室內的紊亂氣流。 
  在剖面設計中,單跨廠房須增大低側窗的面積(或用大面積開敞的大門)和增大高側窗的面積,利用其高差以利通風換氣。天窗要有足夠高度球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以利排氣球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。在溫暖地區球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,可采用開敞式或半開敞式建筑球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。為防暴風雨侵襲,可設擋雨板球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,并兼作遮陽用球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。 
  熱加工廠房如用作冶煉、軋鋼、鑄造球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、鍛壓等車間,一般設有地溝球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、地坑和較大的設備基礎球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,地下煙道也較多,宜設在地下水位較低的地段,并作防水處理球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。此外,對鑄造球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、鍛壓車間產生的振動球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、噪聲,也都應作處理。 
    This kind of workshop emits a lot of waste heat or smoke during the production process. The design of the workshop should focus on solving the problem of heat dissipation and smoke exhaust, which is generally based on natural ventilation and supplemented by mechanical heat exhaust. In the design, the pollution and impact on the environment inside and outside the workshop should be considered comprehensively.
    Most of the hot processing plants are narrow and long single span plants to facilitate natural ventilation, and the large area can also be connected. The layout of the heat source in the plant should consider the impact on the adjacent sections. If the annual wind pressure is not large, the heat source should be facing the air outlet (such as skylight) to reduce the indoor turbulence.
     The skylight should be high enough to facilitate exhaust. In warm areas, open or semi open buildings can be used. In order to prevent the invasion of wind and rain, a rain shield can be set and used as a sunshade.
    If the hot processing workshop is used for smelting, steel rolling, casting, forging and other workshops, there are generally trenches, pits and large equipment foundations, and there are many underground flues, which should be set in the section with low underground water level, and waterproof treatment should be carried out. In addition, the vibration and noise produced in the foundry and forging workshop should also be dealt with.
    冷加工廠房
  冷加工是與熱加工相對而言的,冷加工廠房是生產過程中不散發大量余熱的廠房球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。按生產和建筑特點可分為重型和輕型兩類:①重型冷加工廠房。它的加工件的體積、重量都比較大。廠房設計應著重解決鐵路運輸和重型吊車與廠房的關系球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以及輕球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、重部件加工工段的組合等問題球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。這類廠房平面常將機械加工和裝配工段跨間相互垂直布置球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。重型部件加工跨間緊靠露天倉庫,其余跨間按部件輕重依次排列球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。也可采用全部平行跨間的組合,由廠房一端引入鐵路專用支線,另一端布置生活間。重型冷加工廠房體量大,應合理選擇結構形式,處理好廠房體形和立面尺度問題球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,一般可將輔助用房、辦公室球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、生活間等合并建筑,以節約用地。②輕型冷加工廠房。這種廠房中的加工件都較輕,但數量大球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,品種多;對生產連續性要求較高,工藝更新周期短,因而在運輸路線和設備布置方面要有更大的靈活性。為加大靈活性球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,宜采用標準設計的大柱網靈活車間,以利于布置不同方向的流水線。結構上要考慮懸掛運輸工具路線改變的可能性。廠房內可采用輕型活動隔墻球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以適應生產工藝變更的需要球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。此外,由于加工精度高,人員密集度高,自然采光和通風的要求比重型加工廠房高。 
    Cold working is relative to hot working. Cold working workshop is a workshop that does not emit a lot of waste heat in the production process. According to the characteristics of production and construction, it can be divided into two categories: heavy and light: ① heavy cold processing workshop. The volume and weight of its workpieces are relatively large. The plant design should focus on solving the problems of railway transportation, the relationship between heavy crane and plant, and the combination of light and heavy parts processing sections. In the plane of this kind of workshop, the spans of machining and assembly sections are usually arranged vertically to each other. The heavy parts processing Bay is close to the open warehouse, and the rest bays are arranged according to the weight of the parts. The combination of all parallel spans can also be adopted, with one end of the plant leading into the railway special branch line and the other end arranging the living room. The large volume of heavy-duty cold processing workshop requires reasonable selection of structural form and proper handling of workshop body shape and facade dimension. Generally, auxiliary rooms, offices, living rooms and other buildings can be combined to save land. ② Light cold working workshop. In this kind of workshop, the workpieces are light, but there are large quantities and many varieties; the requirements for production continuity are high, and the process renewal cycle is short, so there should be more flexibility in the transportation route and equipment layout. In order to increase flexibility, it is advisable to use the standard design of large column net flexible workshop to facilitate the arrangement of assembly lines in different directions. The possibility of changing the route of the suspended means of transport should be considered structurally. Light movable partition wall can be used in the workshop to meet the needs of production process change. In addition, due to the high processing accuracy, high personnel density, natural lighting and ventilation requirements of specific gravity processing plant.
    動力站
  大、中型工廠一般都設有各種動力站。動力站建筑可分為兩類:一類是供電球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、供熱、供煤氣的站房球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,如自備電站、鍋爐房、煤氣站等;另一類是供氫氣、氧氣球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、乙炔球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、壓縮空氣的站房。 
  ①鍋爐房和煤氣站。在以煤為主要能源的工廠內,常將二者靠近安排球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以便共同使用水處理系統、輸煤系統球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、除灰系統,設在廠區內靠近運輸干線的地方球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。較大型鍋爐房和煤氣站的主要建筑多為三層,以便實現運煤、儲煤球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、除灰的機械化。鍋爐房分為加煤層、運轉層和出灰層球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载;煤氣站分為運煤走廊、煤斗和操作間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、發生爐和除渣間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。此外球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,鍋爐房還設有煙囪和除塵設施;煤氣站的室外設有靜電除焦油、循環用水等設備和洗滌塔球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、冷卻塔。高壓鍋爐房和煤氣站還應采取防雷球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、防爆設施。 
  ②氫氣站球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、氧氣站球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、乙炔發生站、壓縮空氣站。在總平面布置上這些動力站應靠近其用量較大的車間,以便于瓶罐運輸或縮短管線。氫氣站、氧氣站和乙炔發生站都有較大的火災和爆炸危險性,因此氧氣站應設在乙炔發生站和向大氣中排放可燃氣體的車間的上風位,乙炔發生站應設在壓縮空氣站的下風位球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。這類站房相互間要有一定的安全距離球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。它們所用原料主要是建筑周圍的空氣球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,所以應保持所處地段空氣的潔凈球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。 
  氧氣站有制氧和灌瓶兩部分,產量大的分設成兩個車間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。充瓶臺前設高 2米的防護墻球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,以防氣瓶爆炸傷人。 
  乙炔發生站一般為獨立建筑,產量小的可與用氣車間合并,但須以實墻分隔,以利防火。 
  壓縮空氣站有較大的振動和噪聲,要遠離有防微振要求的車間球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。規模小的(產量一般每小時小于1000立方米),可貼建于廠房一側。 
  這些動力站房一般采用單層球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载,柱距尺寸多為6米,跨度為12、15球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载、18米不等球王会app能提现吗-app标准版下载。大中型站房設備較多時,可設置檢修用的小型單軌吊車。
    Large and medium-sized factories are generally equipped with various power stations. The power station buildings can be divided into two categories: one is the station buildings for power supply, heat supply and gas supply, such as self provided power station, boiler room, gas station, etc.; the other is the station buildings for hydrogen, oxygen, acetylene and compressed air.
    ① boiler room and gas station. In plants with coal as the main energy source, they are often arranged close to each other so that water treatment system, coal handling system and ash removal system can be used together. They are located near the transportation trunk line in the plant area. The main buildings of large boiler house and gas station are mostly three floors, so as to realize the mechanization of coal transportation, coal storage and ash removal. The boiler room is divided into coal adding layer, operation layer and ash discharging layer; the gas station is divided into coal conveying corridor, coal hopper and operation room, generator and slag removal room. In addition, the boiler room is also equipped with chimneys and dust removal facilities; the outdoor gas station is equipped with electrostatic tar removal, circulating water and other equipment as well as washing tower and cooling tower. High pressure boiler room and gas station shall also be equipped with lightning protection and explosion-proof facilities.
   ② hydrogen station, oxygen station, acetylene generation station and compressed air station. In the general layout, these power stations should be close to the workshop with large consumption, so as to facilitate the transportation of bottles and tanks or shorten the pipeline. Hydrogen station, oxygen station and acetylene generating station all have great fire and explosion risks, so oxygen station shall be set in the upper wind position of acetylene generating station and workshop discharging combustible gas to the atmosphere, and acetylene generating station shall be set in the lower wind position of compressed air station. There should be a certain safe distance between such stations. The raw materials they use are mainly the air around the building, so the air in the area should be kept clean.
    The oxygen station has two parts of oxygen production and bottle filling, and the one with large output is divided into two workshops. A 2m high protective wall is set up in front of the filling table to prevent the explosion of gas cylinders from hurting people.
    Generally, the acetylene generating station is an independent building, and the small production can be combined with the gas workshop, but it must be separated by solid walls to facilitate fire prevention.
     Small scale (the output is generally less than 1000 cubic meters per hour) can be pasted on one side of the plant.
    When there are many large and medium-sized station equipment, small monorail crane for maintenance can be set.
 


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